is mostly grown at low elevations in areas with a temperature
range of 15 to 30ºC. Pineapple is tolerant to drought
because of the special water storage cells. They can
be grown with a wide range of rainfall from 600-2500
mm / annum, the optimum being 1000-1500 mm. Pineapple
can be grown in a wide range of soils, but does not
tolerate waterlogging. It can be grown as a pure crop
on plantation scale or as an intercrop in coconut gardens.
The planting season is May-June. Planting should be
avoided during the periods of heavy rains.
There are two varieties viz., Kew and Mauritius .
are two varieties viz., Kew and Mauritius the cultivation
practices of which are described separately.
Kew is a variety recommended for large-scale commercial
cultivation in Kerala. The package of recommendations
for its cultivation is detailed below.
Preparation of the land
Prepare the land for planting by ploughing or digging
followed by levelling. Depending on the nature of
land, prepare trenches of convenient length and about
90 cm width and 15-30 cm depth. The trenches are to
be aligned at a distance of 165 cm from centre to
and treatment of suckers
Select healthy suckers of uniform size weighing 500-1000
g. Keep suckers in open space under shade in a single
layer for about 7 days for drying. Strip off a few
lower old dried leaves. Allow the suckers to dry and
cure for another 7 days. Dip the cured suckers in
1% Bordeaux mixture at the time of planting.
Rake the soil and plant the suckers in double rows
at spacing of 70 cm between rows and 30 cm between
plants. Limit the depth of planting to 7.5 to 10 cm.
Adopt triangular method of planting in each trench
so that the plants in two adjacent rows are not opposite
to each other (plant population 40400 / ha).
Induction of flowering
For inducement of uniform flowering, apply 25 ppm
ethephon (2-chloro ethyl phosphonic acid) in aqueous
solution containing 2% urea and 0.04% calcium carbonate
mixture (50 ml/plant) is to be applied pouring into
the heart of 16-17 month old plants (39-42 leaf stage)
during dry weather. For treating 1000 plants, 50 litres
of the solution would be required. (The ingredients
for preparing 50 litres of the aqueous solution are
ethephon 1.25 ml, urea 1 kg and calcium carbonate
20 g, made up to 50 litres with water. The dosage
has to be fixed depending on the availability of commercial
formulation and the active ingredient contents)
will commence from 40th day after application and
complete on the 70th day.
Mauritius is recommended for commercial cultivation
for table purposes and distant marketing, due to its
shorter duration, better fruit quality, keeping quality
Main season of planting is April-May and August-September,
but can also be planted in all months except during
heavy rain of June-July. The best time for planting
is August. For getting maximum price and better keeping
quality, the best planting time is April-May. During
summer months, if there are no summer showers after
planting, irrigation should be given three weeks after
planting for proper establishment.
Mauritius can be grown as a pure crop in garden land,
reclaimed lowlands and wetlands and as an intercrop
in coconut and newly planted rubber plantations. In
rubber plantation, it can be grown for the first 3-4
Pure crop: Prepare the land by digging the area to
be planted at 90 cm width in rows / strips, leaving
the interspaces undisturbed. However, ploughing can
be adopted in level land. Planting is done in paired
rows of 45 cm distance between rows and 30 cm between
suckers. Suckers may be planted in triangular method
in the paired rows. Interspace between the paired
rows is kept at 150 cm. Contour planting may be adopted
in sloppy areas.
in coconut garden: Land preparation, spacing and planting
are the same as described above. There can be three-paired
rows in between two rows of coconut.
Intercropping in rubber plantations: System of planting
is in paired rows at 45 x 30 cm. There will be only
one paired row of pineapple in between two rows of
/ lowlands: Pineapple is highly sensitive to water
stagnation and high moisture regimes. Hence it is
important to provide good drainage, if grown in wetlands.
In paddy lands, pineapple is planted in paired rows
at 45 x 30 cm spacing on ridges taken at 60-90 cm
height, depending on the water table and drainage
requirement. The ridges are separated by drainage
channels having 60 cm width. The width of the ridges
varies from 120-150 cm. Wherever water stagnation
and poor drainage are expected, a wider and deeper
channel is given in between ridges.
Suckers are selected from disease and pest free healthy
plants. Suckers are to be graded into those having
500-750 g and 750-1000 g. The graded suckers are planted
in different blocks or plots, to get uniformity in
growth and flowering. Bigger suckers give early yield.
Dipping of suckers in 1% Bordeaux mixture and 0.05%
quinalphos will protect the suckers against diseases
After preliminary land preparations, planting is done
in small pits of 10-15 cm depth at a spacing of 45
cm between rows and 30 cm between plants in the rows.
There is no need to plant the suckers in trenches.
For inducing uniform flowering, 25 ppm ethephon is
applied on physiologically mature plants having 39-42
leaves (7-8 months after planting). The solution for
application in 1000 plants is prepared by adding 1.25
ml of ethephon (3.2 ml of 39% ethrel or 12.5 ml of
10% ethrel), 1 kg urea and 20 g calcium carbonate
to 50 litres of water. Pour 50 ml of the prepared
solution to the heart of the plant during dry weather
conditions (when there is no rain during the time
starts by 30 days and completes within 40 days of
growth regulator application. Fruits will be ready
for harvest by 130-135 days after the application
of growth regulator. Harvest over different months
/ seasons could be obtained by carefully phasing /
planning the planting and growth regulator application.
The plant crop after harvest can be retained as ratoon
crop for two more years. After the harvest of the
plant crop, chopping the side leaves of the mother
plant should be done for easy cultural operations.
The suckers retained should be limited to one or two
per mother plant. Excess suckers if any should be
removed. Earthing up should be done. Other management
practices are same as for the plant crop.
During summer months, pineapple variety Kew should be
irrigated wherever possible at 0.6 IW/ CPE ratio (50
mm depth of water). It requires five or six irrigations
during dry months at an interval of 22 days. Mulching
the crop with dry leaves at 6 t/ha will help to conserve
Irrigation for Mauritious variety
Wherever irrigation facilities are available, providing
irrigation in summer months at two weeks intervals results
in good fruit size and high yield. If there is no irrigation
facility, the crop should be scheduled for harvest before
summer months (before March).
Apply compost / cattle manure at 25 t/ha as basal dressing.
Apply fertilizers at the following dosage:
Per plant per year (g) 8:4:8
Per hectare per year (kg) 320:160:320
Apply full dose of P2O5 at the time of planting. Nitrogen
and K2O may be applied in four splits, during May-June
(at planting), August-September, November and May-June
In places where rains are scanty during November, N
and K2O may be applied in three equal splits - two doses
in 1st year (May-June and August-September) and the
third in May-June of the second year. After application
of fertilizers, cover with soil by scraping the sides
Manuring for mauritious
Apply compost / FYM at the rate of 25 t/ha at the time
of planting. Apply fertilizers at the rate of 8:4:8
g N:P2O5:K2O per plant per year. Full dose of P2O5 is
applied as basal at the time of planting. Nitrogen and
K2O are applied as four equal split doses after planting.
First dose may be applied at 40-50 days after planting
and thereafter at 60-70 days intervals.
control for Kew variety
For effective and economic weed control, use weedicides.
Pre-emergent spray with diuron 3 kg or bromacil 2.5
kg in 600 litres of water per hectare completely controls
all types of weeds in pineapple plantation. If there
is subsequent growth of weeds, herbicide application
may be repeated at half the above dose. Spraying should
be done when there is adequate moisture in the soil.
Avoid periods of heavy rainfall for spraying.
Weed control for Mauritious variety
Pre-emergence (within a few weeks after planting) spray
of diuron @ 1 kg/ha in 600 litres of water can keep
the field free of weeds for about four months. For subsequent
weed control, herbicide application is repeated. For
controlling Mikania micrantha (vayara valli or American
valli), spot-application of diuron can be adopted. Spraying
should be done in moist soil, but avoiding rainy periods.
Weeds in interspaces can be controlled by spraying glyphosate
0.8 kg/ha or a mixture of 2,4-D 0.5 kg/ha and paraquat
0.4 kg/ha. While spraying in interspaces, care should
be taken that the weedicide shall not fall on pineapple
control of mealy bugs, adopt the following measures:
Apply quinalphos at 0.025%, fenitrothion 0.05% or fenthion
0.05%. Destroy grasses and other monocot weeds, which
serve as alternate hosts for the pest.
bugs (Dysmicoccus brevipes / Pseudococcus bromeliae):
Spray quinalphos 0.025-0.05% or fenitrothion 0.05% or
fenthion 0.05% or chlorpyriphos 0.05% or dimethoate
0.05% or monocrotophos 0.05%. Care should be taken that
the spray shall reach the base and also the sides of
the plant. The plot should be kept weed free. For the
control of mealy bugs, control of ants is a must. Hence
apply carbaryl to control ants in its colonies in the
insects (Diaspus bromeliae): The spraying of chemicals
for the control of mealy bugs, mentioned above, will
be sufficient for the control of scale insects.
serious pests or diseases are noticed in the crop except
for light incidence of leaf spot disease and of the
control of leaf spot, spray with any one of the following
fungicides when symptoms of the disease are noticed:
mixture 1%, 225 litre / ha
Zineb 1 kg in 225 litre water / ha
Mancozeb 1 kg in 225 litre water / ha
Ziram 1 kg in 225 litre water / ha
rot / heart rot / fruit rot caused by Phytophthora sp.
is common in poor drainage conditions. Providing drainage
is most essential. The water table should be at least
60 cm below the soil surface. Badly affected plants
should be destroyed and the remaining plants should
be drenched with 1% Bordeaux mixture in the soil. Leaf
spot can be controlled by spraying 1% Bordeaux mixture
or 0.2% zineb / mancozeb / ziram.
burn: During summer months it is necessary to protect
the fruits from scorching sun by putting dried grasses,
coconut or arecanut leaves.