CROP : MAIZE (Zea mays)
Maize (Zea mays) is a tall, deep-rooted,
warm weather annual grass. A single long stalk will develop
from seed. Long smooth leaves are attached at the stem
nodes. Seed producing shoots originate from the base of
the main stem. The female flowers are borne on the corn
'ear', which arises at a leaf axil near the mid-point
along the stem. The flower organs, and later the grain
kernels, are enclosed in several layers of papery tissue,
termed husks. A mass of long styles (silks) protrude from
the tip as a mass of silky threads. These strands are
actually the stigmas from the flowers and emerge at the
same time the pollen from the terminal tassels is shed.
The pollen is wind blown and comes in contact with the
emerged silk or stigma.
Most varieties of corn require 100 to
140 days from seeding to full ripeness of the kernels
though some kinds will ripen in as little as 80 days.
Corn kernels or seeds vary in size and shape in different
kinds and varieties. They may be only an eighth inch
long and near round in popcorn to a half inch long and
a flattened-cylinder shape in some other kinds. The
kernel consists of the following: (1) An outer thin
covering which is made up of two layers, an outer pericarp
and inner testa or true seed coat. (2) The endosperm
which makes up near 0.66 of the total volume. This consists
almost entirely of starch, except in sweet corn. (3)
The embryo, the miniature plant structure that develops
into a new plant if the seed is planted and grows. The
embryo is near one side of the kernel in most kinds
rather than in the middle. It contains most of the oil
Seeds should have minimum 80%germination
and must be free from seed borne pathogens. Always use
certified seeds. Seed treatment with Thiram @ 3g per kg
seed is recommended.. In the case of hybrids, use new
hybrid seeds every year.
- Ganga Hybrid-1
- Ganga Hybrid-101
- Deccan hybrid
- Kissan Composite
Maize can be grown throughout the year
at altitude ranging from sea level to about 300 m. Maize
grows best in areas with rainfall of 600-900 mm. It requires
fertile, well-drained soil with a pH ranging from 5.5-8.0,
but pH 6.0-7.0 is optimum.
As a rainfed crop, maize is grown in
June-July or August-September. The irrigated crop is
raised in January-February.
Seed rate: 20 kg/ha
Preparation of land and sowing
Plough the land three times and prepare ridges and furrows.
Dibble one seed per hole at a spacing of 60 cm x 23
cm for the rainy season crop. For irrigated crop, beds
are prepared. Here, seeds are sown in lines and earthed
up later in to small ridges to form furrows when the
crop reaches knee height.
Irrigate the crop on the day of sowing
and on third day. Subsequent irrigations may be given
at 10-15 days intervals
Apply FYM/ compost at the rate of 25 t/ha
at the time of preparation of land. The recommended fertilizer
dose is 135 kg N, 65 kg P2O5 and 15 kg K2O/ha. Apply full
dose of P2O5 and K2O and 1/3 dose of N as basal. Apply
1/3 N 30-40 days and the rest 60-70 days after sowing.
Hand hoeing and weeding on the 21st and
45th day after sowing.
Need based application of carbaryl is recommended
for control of pests
Harvest maize crop when husk has turned
yellow and grains are hard. Do not wait for stalks and
leaves to dry. Remove the husk from the cobs and then
dry them in sun for 7-8 days.Then the grains are removed
either by beating the cobs by sticks or with the help
of maize shellers.
Irrigated Crop: 5- 6 tons/ha (Hybrids)
Rainfed Crop : 2-2.5 tons/ha (Hybrids)