[KUDAMPULI] (Garcinia gummi-gutta var. gummi-gutta)
(Ad hoc recommendation)
the camboge tree is a big sized glabrous and evergreen
forest tree commonly seen in the Western Ghats of Kerala,
Karnataka, and also in Sri Lanka. The tree is very much
adapted to hill tops and plain lands alike. But, its performance
is best in river banks and valleys. It grows well in dry
or occasionally waterlogged or flooded soils. The economic
part of the plant is its mature fruit, which is highly
acidic. The extract obtained from the mature fruit rind,
(-) hydroxy citric acid, attracts foreign markets, for
its use in medicines controlling obesity.
Grafts prepared through soft wood grafting or side grafting
and healthy seedlings raised in the nursery are used for
cultivation. If seedlings are planted, 50-60% will be
male; and female takes 10-12 years for bearing. Hence
planting of grafts is advocated as they ensure maternal
characters including early bearing tendency.
of mother trees: Locate mother trees that give a steady
annual yield with a mean fruit weight of 200-275 g,
high acid and low tannin content. Collect seeds from
freshly harvested and fully ripe fruits and wash in
running water and spread in a thin layer under roof.
By the 20th day, seeds will be ready for sowing. Sow
seeds at the rate of two per bag in polybags during
the month of August-September. Usually seeds start sprouting
in the month of December but the sprouts become visible
above the soil surface only by February. In order to
avoid delayed germination, simple seed treatment methods
can be employed.
1: In this method, the processed seeds (after drying
under shade) are given a mechanical treatment. Remove
seed coats of such seeds using a sharp knife without
injuring the ivory coloured cotyledon. Sow these ivory
coloured cotyledons afresh in polybags at a depth of
3 cm. Germination starts in 20-25 days after sowing.
2: After removing the seed coats, treat the seeds with
gibberellic acid @ 250 ppm for 6 hours, and thereafter
soak them in mancozeb @ 4 g/l for 2 hours. Sow the seeds
in nursery bags and irrigate daily. Seeds germinate
in 16-20 days.
3: Second method followed by transfer of the seeds to
a white polypropylene cover of size 20 cm x 25 cm along
with 30-50 ml of filtered water. Tie the polybag along
with the air inside tightly using a rubber band. Such
seeds germinate in 10-12 days after sowing. In a polybag,
about 500-750 seeds can be incubated at a time. Pick
up the sprouted seeds and sow in the nursery bags kept
the seedlings under shade. Irrigate them regularly on
alternate days during summer months. After 3-4 months,
place the seedlings under direct sunlight to trigger
robust growth. At this age, apply FYM @ 50 g per bag.
In six to seven months time, seedlings will be ready
Two types of grafting methods are employed viz. soft
wood grafting and approach grafting.
Soft wood grafting
Select scions only from specific elite trees regular
in bearing, which produce high yield of large and quality
of scion: Select straight growing, healthy, young shoots
emerging from the primary branches with whorled leaf
arrangement. Cut them to a length of 6-10 cm and store
in polybags under humid condition. Remove leaves partly
and shape the cut end to a wedge of 3-4 cm length by
giving slanting cuts on two opposite sides.
of rootstock: Stock-plants having 3-4 mm stem thickness
are ideal for grafting. Behead the selected plants at
two nodes below the terminal bud and remove all the
leaves at the graft union. Use scion and rootstock of
same thickness for grafting.
Insert the wedge of the scion into the cleft made on
the rootstock and secure the graft joint firmly with
a black polythene tape, 1.5-2 cm wide and 30 cm long.
in the nursery: Immediately after grafting, cover the
plants with a transparent polypropylene cover and keep
under shade. By the 30th day, grafts will establish
and new leaves will start emerging. Remove the polythene
cover and keep under shade. Water the grafts daily using
rose-can or micro-sprinkler. Care should be taken to
remove sprouts emerging from rootstock at frequent intervals.
Three months after grafting the plants will be ready
for planting in the main field. Just before planting
in the main field, leave the grafts under open condition
in 10-15 days for hardening.
Here also stock plants having 3-4 mm thickness are preferred
and they are brought to the place where the mother tree
is located. Grafting is done as in other crops and is
kept intact for 45 days by which time union occurs.
Graft is detached from the mother tree in three steps.
The main disadvantage is that only a limited number
of grafts can be produced in this method. Forty-five
days after grafting, they will be ready for transferring
to the main nursery for hardening. Grafts are to be
watered daily using a rose-can or micro-sprinkler. Care
should be taken to remove sprouts emerging from rootstock
at frequent intervals. Leaf folding pests common in
the nursery can be controlled by spraying with quinalphos
@ 2 ml/l at monthly intervals. One-year-old grafts can
be used for field planting.
Prepare pits of size 1 x 1 m at spacing of 10 m. Refill
the pits with a mixture of topsoil and compost / FYM.
Proper care should be given to avoid water stagnation
plants can be raised as a pure crop or as a mixed crop
in coconut and arecanut gardens. Take pits of size 0.75
x 0.75 x 0.75 m in hard and laterite soils; 0.50 x 0.50
x 0.50 m in sandy and alluvial soils, at a spacing of
4 m x 4 m for grafts and 7 m x 7 m for seedlings. In
slopes of 15% or more, for planting grafts, rows are
spaced at 5 to 5.5 m and 3.5 m between trees in a row.
For planting seedlings, rows are spaced at 8 to 12 m
and at 6 to 8 m for trees in a row. Planting is generally
done at the onset of monsoon showers. Under existing
coconut plantation of 25 years and above, spacing shall
be so adjusted that it should alternate with the palms
in the rows. Under Kuttanad conditions, where bunds
and channels alternate, planting can be done in between
two palms. Fill the pits with topsoil and 5 kg of compost
or well-decomposed cattle manure and 10 g of carbaryl
10% dust, to avoid white ant attack, before planting.
The graft union shall remain just above the ground level.
Provide support to the young plants. One month after
planting, gently remove the polythene tape around the
Clean the field free of bushes and thick shades. Weed
once in three months and mulch the basin with black
polythene or dry leaves to avoid drying.
Grafts will grow fast from the second year onwards.
Give strong support with casuarina poles at this stage.
By fifth year, the tree will have 3 to 4 m height. At
this stage, height of the plant may be maintained at
3.5 to 4 m and by seventh year at 4 to 4.5 m by pruning.
Apply 10 kg cattle manure or compost per seedling / graft
during the first year. Gradually increase the quantity
so that a well-grown tree of 15 years and above receives
50 kg of organic manure per year. Apply N:P2O5:K2O mixture
at the rate of 20:18:50 g/plant during the first year.
Double the dose in the second year and gradually increase
it to 500:250:1000 g / plant / year at the 15th year.
scales and beetles are found to infest the crop. Hard
scales desap the leaves and tender shoots. Both the adult
beetles and their grubs defoliate the crop inflicting
heavy loss of yield. Control these pests by spraying dimethoate
or monocrotophos @ 1 ml/l. Leaf folders are very common
in the nursery against which quinalphos @ 2 ml/l may be
sprayed. Incidence of hoppers is observed on grafts and
large trees. This causes withering of leaves, drying up
of branches and yield loss. Control them by spraying carbaryl
50 WP 2g + dichlorovos 1 ml per litre of water.
mould is seen associated with hard scales. Seedling blight
in the nursery stage is very common. Control it by drenching
nursery bed with 1% Bordeaux mixture or using mancozeb
@ 5 g/l. In grafts and large trees, sometimes, fungal
thread blights have been observed to cause leaf and twig
blight. Adopt proper pruning and spray 1% Bordeaux mixture
or mancozeb 0.3 %.
start bearing generally at the age of 10-12 years. Grafts
start bearing from the third year onwards and will attain
full bearing at the age of 12 to 15 years. Flowering
occurs in January-March and fruits mature in July. There
are reports of off-season bearers, which bear two times
a year, i.e., during January-July and September-February.
Mature fruits, which are orange yellow in colour, drop
off from the tree. Harvest mature fruits manually before
they fall. Immediately after harvest, wash the fruits
in running water and separate the fruit rind for processing.
fruit rind is first sun dried and then either smoke-dried
or oven-dried at 70-80ºC. In order to increase the
storage life and to impart softness, mix the dried rind
with common salt @ 150 g and coconut oil @ 50 ml per kg
of dried rind.